Poverty refers to the general scarcity or the condition of one individual who cannot meet his basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter. “Poverty is not an accident like slavery and apartheid, it is man-made and can be removed by actions of human beings”, said Nelson Mandela. As part of the Sustainable Development Goals adopted in September 2015, the United Nations is challenging global leaders to help end poverty in all its forms everywhere by 2030. Poverty is undoubtedly the result of problems within the political and economic system and therefore we must turn to these systems to find the solutions.
As the world marks International Day for Eradication of Poverty on October 17 each year since 1993, it is crucial to spread the message that equal access to quality education plays a key role in eradicating poverty. Education is vital to achieve this particular goal because it can help ensure that the benefits of growth are fairly shared. Expanding access to education alone is not enough. Equitable learning for all must be implemented to share national prosperity for all. Globally, over 40 years, income per capita would be 23% higher in a country with more equal education. If education inequality in sub-Saharan Africa had been halved, to the level of Latin America and the Caribbean, for example, its economic growth over 2005–2010 would have been 47% higher. By building a skilled workforce, education can promote third world countries from one economic bracket to the next. If all students in low income countries left school with basic reading skills, we could eradicate 12% of world poverty. Education can prevent the transmission of poverty between generations. It is the long-term solution for fighting poverty.
In 2008, the World Health Organization (WHO) took note of — even celebrated — the 30th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration – a declaration arising out of the International Conference on Primary Health Care (PHC) in Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan. This declaration called for “the attainment by all peoples of the world by the year 2000 of a level of health that will permit them to lead a socially and economically productive life” – i.e., calling for “Health for all” by 2000. Eight years beyond this target date, one billion people live in developing countries on less than US$1 a day, and 2.5 billion are living on less than $2 a day; more than 2.6 billion people lack access to toilets and other sanitation facilities; and 30,000 children under five-years of age die every day, mainly from dehydration, undernourishment, and preventable diseases. Where there are clinics and hospitals, they are too few, and they are inadequately staffed and equipped. The direct cost of care at the point of service should be reduced through reducing or abolishing user fees for the poor or expanding health insurance to the poor. The authority concerned or corporations should increase efficiency of care to reduce total consumption of care. For example,by limiting “irrational drug prescribing,“strengthening the referral system, or improving the quality of providers. Reducing inequalities in determinants of health status or health care utilization should be brough forward, such as reducing distance, subsidizing travel costs, targeted health promotion, conditional cash transfers.
It is everyone’s wish to be able to wake up each day and turn on a tap that provides a safe, constant source of drinking water, but this does not happen in the lives of nearly one billion people who live without access to potable water. With no option, they rely on polluted surface and groundwater sources which are also the main sources of water-related disease such as diarrhea, typhoid, cholera, and worm infection.UNICEF reported that about 4,500 children die every day from water-related diseases. Ensuring safe water supplies and adequate sanitation throughout the developing world are the most effective measures for curbing poverty and improving heath. The World Bank says that “Access to clean water and sanitation is one of the most cost-effective development interventions, and is critical for reducing poverty.” The reasons for this is that women can use the time that they would have spent fetching water to work and produce more, agricultural production could increase, and the costs of services and goods could go down a fair amount.
Economic security for all can eventually help to alleviate poverty. Economic security or financial security is the condition of having stable income or other resources to support a standard of living now and in the foreseeable future. It includes: probable continued solvency, predictability of the future cash flow of a person or other economic entity, such as a country. Economic security along with access to information, and job opportunities are foundational for effective poverty reduction. In order to break the cycle of poverty, the world’s most vulnerable communities need support to overcome discrimination, barriers to employment, and cultural assumptions that perpetuate economic inequality. As a result this can generate virtuous circles of prosperity and opportunity. Strong growth and employment opportunities improve incentives for parents to invest in their children’s education by sending them to school. This may lead to the emergence of a strong and growing group of entrepreneurs, which should generate pressure for improved governance. Strong economic growth therefore advances human development, which, in turn, promotes economic growth.
Childrend and youngsters participation can also help children learn their rights and take active roles within their community. This help them to engage in citizenship, express their views and make decisions that will shape their future and influence the people around them. The project Tackling Poverty Together was initiated Presented by the United Nations Programme to convince stakeholders of the importance of working with a Youth Perspective in poverty reduction. Tackling Poverty Together is intended to highlight and strengthen young people’s role in developing policies in general and poverty reduction strategies. The participation of disadvantaged children and young people can contribute to a new understanding of poverty and social exclusion and these fresh perceptions can enable us to identify more effective measures to combat poverty.
In conclusion, it is crucial to consider the fact that as a global problem, poverty calls for everybody’s attention. The approaches mentioned need the concerted effort of relevant bodies. Eradication of poverty would ensure a sustainable and inclusive growth of economy and society. We all should do everything possible and within our limits to help alleviate poverty from our country.